1) No more than 200 calories 1 hour before
2) opt for something with a bit more protein (ex: almonds
3) drink water (helps prevent cramping and fatigue)
After: Post workout it is essential in the "window of opportunity" to get essential nutrients to the muscles after working them! This is the time when muscles are the most sensitive to growth and change so optimal nutrition is key!
So something with a mix of fast and slow carbs and protein-- the fast carbs (think fruit) help absorb the protein and channel the complex carbs to restore the glycogen to those tired muscles!
Here are some examples:
Before: almonds/ small piece of chicken (<3oz), slice of toast with PB
After: Shakeology, recovery formula, apple and PB, Protein shake, Cottage cheese (fat free) with fruit!
It all depends on your body and your preferences but these really work for me!